By Andy Joel
This is an article about British Rail from about 1972 to about 1985, often referred to by modellers as era 7. It gives a brief overview of the locos and multiple units running on British Rail at that time, and is written to support the articles on freight and coaching stock to help the modeller build a realistic train, rather than being a comprehensive record of locos at that time. If you see any errors or have suggestions or further information, do please let my know.
TOPS (Train Operating Processing System) was a computer system for tracking locos and rolling stock, introduced in 1973. The re-numbering seems to have been done pretty quickly, compared to livery changes.
Under the TOPS scheme, loco classes are numbered up to 98, ships are class 99, with multiple units numbering from 100 upwards.
1-69 Diesel locos
70-79 DC Electric locos
80-96 AC Electric locos
97 Departmental locos
98 Steam locos
100+ Mechanical (and hydraulic) DMU
300+ AC (and multivoltage) EMU
400+ SR DC EMU
500+ Non-SR DC EMU
600+ Diesel or other fuel multiple units*
700+ Extends 300+*
800+ High speed (>120 mph) sets*
The TOPS scheme was adjusted in 2011, and saw the introduction of those categorioes marked *, as well as the 400 and 500 ranges being merged together. The range for diesel locos has been extended to 79, excluding 73 (as the class 73 is the only remaining DC loco). This has been necessary as new units are introduced and the existing numbers ran out.
Most sections are further subdivided.
Under the TOPS system all locos were re-numbered; given a five digit number, the first two usually written separately, and denoting the loco class. The third digit often denotes the sub-class. Thus 47 401 is a class 47 loco, or more specifically a 47/4.
Prior to 1973 locos were numbered according to the order they were built (kind of – they were batched together, so locos in a class form a sequence), and originally were prefixed with a “D” for diesel and “E” for electric. Class 47 locos, for example, were originally numbered D1100–D1111 and D1500–D1999. When locos were renumbered for TOPS, the last two digits were usually kept the same where possible.
The class of a loco, pre-TOPS, was described by its type and its manufacturer. The type was determined by its power rating. Type 1 was 800 to 1000 hp, type 2 was 1001 to 1499, type 3 was 1500-1999 hp, type 4 was 2000-2999 hp and type 5 was over 3000 hp. A class 47 would have been know as a “Brush type 4”. This does leave me wondering how the class 24 and 25, for example, were differentiated, as both are Sulzer type 2…
Between 1958 and 1962 British Railways introduced a large range of diesel and electric locos, designed to replace steam. The mainline diesels were classes 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 33, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52, 53 and 55 (classes 29 and 31 were later rebuilds from earlier classes). There were also two classes of DC electric loco, 71 and 73; and five of AC electric loco, 81, 82, 83, 84 and 85. After introducing 30 new locos in just fives years, from 1963 onwards, the introduction of a new class of loco was a rare occurrence.
Many experienced issues and failures, and part of the reason for that is that they were working a long side dirty steam locos, and also that the staff were not that familiar with how to handle and maintain them. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that many were less than successful.
By 1968, the last mainline steam locos had been with drawn (the only exceptions being on the Vale of Rheidol; London Transport kept steam for departmental use until 1971). Not long after steam had disappeared, many of those early classes of diesels did too.
Earlier locos had to be built to work with existing rolling stock, and that meant vacuum braking and, for passenger trains, steam heating, because these were the systems that worked best for steam locos. The steam heating on diesel locos was a major cause of faults; it was also heavy and took up a lot of space.
An exception was the class 33, with electric train heating (ETH) and no steam heating when built, as it was designed to work with the EMUs running on the Southern Region. The class 33 is essentially a class 26 with a larger engine using the space the steam heating system used on the class 26.
Once steam had gone, air braking and ETH became more common. Many locos were converted to be able to handle both, and later still steam heating and vacuum brakes might be removed altogether (though generally later than this era, I think).
All this leaves the modeller wondering: what loco can I run with my rake of coaches or wagons?
Classes that were withdrawn by 1972 I do not bother to say anything about. You can be sure all had vacuum brakes, not air brakes. If they had train heating, it will he steam, not ETH (type 1 locos may not have had any).
The last loco in green livery was 40 106, which actually got repainted green during the blue era, in 1978, I think because it was by then the last loco (or mainline loco) in green. 47256 was still in two-tone green in 1977, and there is some suggestion some class 20s and 47s from Toton were still green around this time, though the photographic evidence is not great, and to me looks like weathered blue. There are suggestions the Liverpool Street Station pilot, a class 08, may also have had a green repaint. There is an interesting discusson here.
In 1976 the HST entered service. While it sported the normal blue, yellow and grey colours, the arrangement was very much non-standard, perhaps due the the stream-lining not lending itself to the usual full yellow ends. The HST livery never appeared on any other locos.
In 1977 a couple of class 47s (47 163 and 47 164) were painted with silver roofs and huge union flags painted on the sides to celebrate the Queen’s silver Jubilee by Stratford depot. The depot subsequently did the roofs of a number of 47s in a similar manner, but with grey (possibly the same grey as used on coached), rather than silver paint.
From 1979, the “large logo” livery officially started to appear, initially on new class 56s, later on refurbished class 50s as they moved to the Western Region. I think a handful of 47s received it in an unofficial way even earlier – an extension of the Stratford silver roofs, but also on some Scottish class 47s too. It became quite common on class 47s and class 73s too. At least some 37s, plus 25 322, 33 012 and 87 006 also received the livery (in some form) at some point, but was not all that consistent. The livery features large numbers and an all-over yellow cab with black window surrounds, and there were examples of locos with one, two or all three of these features in the early eighties. There was also often a regional symbol added, such as a highland terrier for locos based at Inverness. Later examples for the freight sector were painted grey, rather than blue.
From 1983, a new Inter City livery started to appear, with dark grey above light grey, separated by red and white stripes, having previously been seen on the experimental APT. This takes us out of the BR Blue era.
Headcodes and Discs
Locos built from 1960 were fitted with boxes at each end to display the train headcode. This is more technically called the train reporting number, and had already been in use for some years, without being displayed (except on specials and non-routine trains).
Prior to 1960, locos were built with four white discs on each end following steam practice. The top half of each disc could be folded down to hide it, also covering the light; different combinations indicated the train type. I find it odd that these locos were not layer fitted with headcode boxes to bring them in line with later locos.
The codes consist of four characters; a number indicating the class of the train (and so indicating its speed), a letter indicating its destination, and two further numbers indicating the individual route or service.
From the start of 1976 their use on locos was abandoned, as signalling improved and it was no longer necessary for signalman to be able to see them, though they are still in use behind the scenes to this day. At first – and pretty much overnight I think – they were all set to 0O00, but were later replaced, at least in some cases, with two white circles on black fairly quickly. I think some multiple units, such as class 310, had three dots at the first class end (example here). Some locos had the box plated over (class 86s for example). By the early eighties locos were appearing with headcode panels removed altogether.
The Southern Region, following practice from the Southern Railway, had a two digit headcode displayed (and this really is the “headcode”). There are some comprehensive lists here.
Class 14: Only introduced in 1964, they were all withdrawn by 1968 – though many went on to have long lives in industrial ownership.
Class 15 (BTH Type 1): All withdrawn by 1971
Class 16 (NBL Type 1): All withdrawn by 1969
Class 17 (Clayton Type 1): All withdrawn by 1971
Class 20 (English Electric Type 1): Some of these are still running today! They had no train heating fitted, though a few had a through pipe to allow them to work with class 27 on the West Highland Line, and some were used on passenger trains during the summer (particularly to Skegness!) when train heating was not required. I think they were originally vacuum braked, but some or all were later converted to dual braked. The big question is, when?
Class 21 (NBL Type 2): All withdrawn by 1971, or rebuilt as class 29
Class 22 (NBL Type 2 Diesel-Hydraulic): All withdrawn by 1972
Class 23 (English Electric Type 2): All withdrawn by 1971
Class 24 (Sulzer Type 2): Last withdrawn in 1980. Fitted with steam heating as built, but some (many?) had it later removed. Ten locomotives (D5102–5111) had no train heating, the space being occupied by the air compressors needed for operation of the Consett iron ore trains
Class 25 (Sulzer Type 2): Last withdrawn in 1987. Some had steam heating, I think as built, no sign any had ETH.
Class 26 (BRCW Type 2): Last withdrawn in 1993, these spent virtually all their working life in Scotland. Given they were used on passenger trains originally, but less so by the eighties it seems likely they had steam heating, but no ETH. A good site about them can be found here.
Class 27 (BRCW Type 2): Last withdrawn in 1987, like the class 26 they resemble, they were based in Scotland (exclusively from 1969). Some were converted to 27/1 and 27/2 in the early seventies, both sub-classes were dual braked, 27/2 was ETH fitted. This was mainly for the Glasgow to Edinburgh service, with a 27/1 on one end and a 27/2 on the other. The service was taken over by a class 47 in 1980, and the class 27 locos renumbered in 1982 back to 27/0. It is not clear if they were converted back as well.
Class 28 (Metropolitan Vickers Type 2): All withdrawn by 1968
Class 29: All withdrawn by 1971.
Class 31 (Brush Type 2): These were re-engined between 65 and 69 (the originals are considered to be class 30s). Last withdrawn in 2017; there were a number of sub-types. 31/0 were the first batch; they had no headcode box, and were all with drawn by the late seventies as non-standard. 31/1 was the standard version, while 31/4 was for locos converted from 31/1 with ETH fitted. Seems likely they all had steam heating, but yet to confirm that.
Class 33 (BRCW Type 3): Are some still in use? As mentioned, these had ETH fitted from build, but no steam heating. I suspect they were dual braked from build too, as again EMUs were often air braked.
Class 35: Last withdrawn in 1975. Based exclusively in the western region, they had steam heating and vacuum braking.
Class 37 (English Electric Type 3): Some of these are still running today! Part of its success is its relatively low axle weight for its power. Members of the 37/4 sub-class have ETH fitted, but this was only done in 1985-6 (often with large logo repaint).
Class 40 (English Electric Type 4): Last withdrawn in 1985, their hey day was the early sixties when they hauled the expresses on the WCML, until replaced by class 50 locos. Thereafter they were based in the north of England and Scotland. One loco was trialled with ETH, but otherwise they had only steam heating. Many were never fitted with air brakes.
Class 41: All withdrawn by 1967.
Class 42: All withdrawn by 1971.
Class 43: All withdrawn by 1971.
Class 44 (Derby Type 4): Last withdrawn in 1980, and based in the East Midlands prior to that. Fitted with steam heating and vacuum brakes.
Class 45 (Derby Type 4): Last withdrawn in 1989, and based in the Midlands Main Line prior to that. Fitted with steam heating and vacuum brakes. 45/1 had ETH; I guess a later conversion. They had air brakes; again, I guess a later conversion.
Class 46 (Derby Type 4): Last withdrawn in 1984, and based in the Midlands Main Line prior to that. Fitted with steam heating and vacuum brakes. 45/1 had ETH; I guess a later conversion. They had air brakes; again, I guess a later conversion. Looks like they only had steam heating and vacuum brakes.
Class 47 (Brush Type 4): Some of these are still running today! Simplistically, 47/0 had steam heating, as originally built; 47/3 were 47/0 with the steam heating removed; while 47/4 were 47/0 with ETH fitted (and steam heating removed in some cases). All 47/3 and some 47/0 had slow speed control for MGR trains. 47/7 were conversions made in 1980 for push-pull service between Glasgow and Edinburgh (so would have ETH and air brakes, and almost certainly the steam heating taken out to allow for long range fuel tanks).
Class 48 (Brush Type 4): Class 47 locos with a different engine. They were not reliable and all were converted to 47 by 1971 (became 47 114-47 118).
Class 50: Introduced in 1967, last withdrawn in 1994, these were built for the WCML, replacing the class 40 locos, working north from Crewe (south of there being electrified). By 1974 the whole WCML was electrified, and the locos were transferred to the Western Region, to replace the class 52. Being a later class, it was dual braked and ETH fitted from build.
Class 52: Last withdrawn in 1977. Based exclusively in the western region, and later in life in more specifically in Laira, Plymouth. They had steam heating and vacuum braking, and from the later sixties they also had air brakes (except for four!). It was not possible to equip them with ETH.
Class 53: A single prototype, withdrawn in 1975. Steam heating and vacuum braking, with air brakes fitted later.
Class 55: Last withdrawn in 1982. The class 55, or “Deltic” was designed to haul trains on the ECML, until replaced by HSTs in 1978. They were vacuum braked and had steam heating from build, had air brakes fitted in the late sixies, and ETH in the early seventies.
Class 56: First built in 1976, these are still in use. They were built for freight, so have no train heating and all are fitted with slow train control for MGR trains. They have air brakes only.
Class 58: First built in 1982, last withdrawn 2002. They were built for freight, so have no train heating. They have air brakes only. They were delivered in Railfrieght grey livery.
Third Rail DC Electric
All these ran exclusively on the Southern Region, though the class 73 has wondered much further a field in recent years.
Class 70: Three prototype locos, all withdrawn by 1971. Steam heating; vacuum, air and electro-pneumatic brakes.
Class 71: Last withdrawn in 1977, but some members were converted to class 74. ETH; vacuum and air brakes.
Class 73: Some of these are still running today! ETH; vacuum, air and electro-pneumatic brakes.
Class 74: Converted from class 71 in 1968, last withdrawn in 1977. ETH; vacuum, air and electro-pneumatic brakes.
Overhead DC Electric
All these ran exclusively on the Woodhead route from Manchester to Sheffield
Class 76: Built in 1950 to a design by Sir Nigel Gresley, the last was withdrawn in 1981, when the Woodhead line was closed. Fourteen had steam heating, the rest no train heating. They were vacuum braked with some later air braked too.
Class 77: Built in 1953 as a development of the class 76, they were all withdrawn in 1968 and sold to the Netherlands railway the following year (finally withdrawn in 1985). Steam train heating and vacuum brakes.
All these ran more-or-less exclusively on the WCML, with occasional visits to the lines out of Liverpool Street.
Class 81: Last withdrawn in 1991. ETH; vacuum braked when built, air brakes added 1972-73.
Class 82: Last withdrawn in 1987. ETH; vacuum braked when built, air brakes added 1971-72.
Class 83: Last withdrawn in 1989. ETH; vacuum braked when built, air brakes added 1972-73.
Class 84: Last withdrawn in 1980. ETH; vacuum braked when built, air brakes added 1972.
Class 85: Last withdrawn in 1992. ETH; vacuum braked when built, air brakes added 1968-71.
Class 86: First introduced in 1965, and still running. ETH; vacuum and air braked when built.
Class 87: First introduced in 1973, last withdrawn in 2006 (most were then exported to Bulgaria). ETH; air braked only when built.
Class 89: First introduced in 1986, this single prototype was withdrawn in 1992 after a serious failure, later re-built and re-introduced in 1997, to fail again in 2001. ETH; air braked only when built. NOTE: This class designation has also been used for several dozen preserved locos since 1989.
Class 90: First introduced in 1987, and still running. ETH; air braked only when built. None appeared in BR Blue.
This section is still a work in progress
100+ Diesel-Mechanical and -Hydraulic Multiple Units
There were some early experiments with DMUs and single railcars, the most well-known being the GWR “flying bananas”. However, none of them survived far into British Railways.
A total of 30 classes were introduced from about 1957 to 1960, given the TOPS designations 100 to 129. These included parcels units, intercity versions and commuter classes (high density, with extra doors), and varied from single units to six car units. Together these are known as “first generation” DMUs.
|104||2-4||302||1957||1993||57||M||NW England, tyneside|
|105||2-3||302||1959||1988||57||M||Eastern region originally|
|112||2||50||1960||1969||57||M||Liverpool – St Helens||Uprated 101|
|113||2||50||1960||1969||57||H||Liverpool – St Helens||Uprated 101|
|116||2-3||310||1961||1990||64||M?||High density||West Midlands, Glasgow, Cardiff|
|118||3||45||1960||1994||64||M?||High density||Devon and Cornwall|
|119||3||84||1958||1992||64||M?||Cross-country||Paddington and Cardiff|
|120||3||194||1958||1989||64||M?||Cross-country||Bristol to Devon|
|122||1||20||1958||1995||64||M?||LMR and Scottish|
|123||4||40||1963||1984||64||M?||Inter-City||Paddington, Cardiff, Birmingham, Bristol|
|124||6 (later 4)||51||1960||1984||64||M?||Inter-City||Trans-Pennine, later with 123|
|125||3||60||1959||1977||64||H||High density||Lea Valley|
|126||3||66||1959||1983||64||M?||Inter-City||Glasgow to Edinburgh|
|127||4||120||1959||1993||64||H||High density||St Pancras|
|128||1||10||1959||1990||10||M||Parcels||WR and LMR|
|129||1||3||1958||1973||3||H||Parcels||Chester, Newton Heath|
It was not until 1981 that a new DMU would be built, a single class 140 effectively the prototype for the class 141 introduced in 1984 and class 142 in 1985. Together with classes 143 (1985) and 144 (1986), these were known as “Pacers”, built as a low-cost interim solution to the aging first generation DMUs.
1984 also saw the introduction of the class 150, the first “Sprinter” class.
200+ Diesel-Electric Multiple Units
200-207 First gen
210-249 Second gen
The first generation DEMUs were all on the southern region. There were built as EMUs – using standard parts as far as possible – with diesel engines and generator in compartments in the end coaches, rather than picking up power from the third rail. Class 201, 202 and 203 were built with narrow bodies for the Hastings line, and withdrawn in 1986, when the lines were electrified and singled through the narrow tunnels. Class 204 and 205 were used on unelectrified lines in Hampshire, class 206 on the North Downs Line, class 207 on the Oxted line.
The second generation are a motley bunch. The class 210 was in service just 7 years; two prototype set were built, with the diesel engine above the floor, taking up half of one carriage. Classes 220, 221 and 222 were Voyagers (221 are the tilting Super Voyagers, 222 are Meridian). The class 230 were converted from London Underground D78 stock.
There was no 250.
The 251 is the “Blue Pullman”. The Blue Pullman service began in 1960, from Manchester Central to St Pancras, with two six-car sets. Later three eight-car sets were built for services out of Paddington. Originally they were run by the Pullman Company, but after that was nationalised in 1962, it was run by BR, but still using the brand. In 1965 the WCML was electrified as far as Manchester, giving a more competitive alternative, and the two units were transferred to the WR. The original Nanking blue livery with white windows surrounds had yellow ends added in 1966, and some units had a reverse blue-grey livery from around 1969. They were withdrawn in 1973, as travel in standard Mark 2 coaches was becoming just as good, and maintenance on non-standard units was an issue.
Blue Pullman is considered a precursor to the HST. The 252 is the prototype HST, 253 and 254 the production HST, 253 being the WR version with seven coaches, and 254 the ECML with eight coaches. Later this numbering was abandoned, and the power units were considered class 43 locos, as there were issues when sets were broken up for servicing and not necessarily then running with its twin. Class 255 is a semi-official classification for short HST trains.
300+ AC (and multivoltage) Electric Multiple Units
The early EMUs were designated AM1 to AM11 before TOPS. These were renumbered as class 301 to 311 in order.
The class 301 was actually withdrawn in 1966, before getting the TOPS code. They were used on the Lancaster/Morecambe/Heysham route, until it closed.
The nature of EMUs is that they are obviously restricted to electrified lines, and so classes very much stayed in one area, or even just one line.
List of pre-1990 EMU classes
302 London, Tilbury and Southend Railway
303 North Clyde and the Cathcart Circle lines in Strathclyde
304 between Crewe and Manchester/Liverpool/Rugby
305 Lea Valley lines out of London Liverpool Street to Chingford
306 Great Eastern Main Line between Shenfield and London Liverpool Street
307 Great Eastern Main Line
308 Great Eastern Main Line
309 “Clacton express”
310 Euston outer suburban (1965)
311 Glasgow Central to Gourock and Wemyss Bay (1967)
312 Kings Cross outer suburban (1975)
313 Kings Cross inner suburban (1976)
314 Argyle line and North Clyde line (1979)
315 Lines out of Liverpool St (1980)
317 London St Pancras to Bedford (1981)
318 Ayrshire Coast Line (1986)
319 Bedford to Brighton (1987)
The class 310 was the first to be based on Mark 2 coaches. The class 312 was based on the class 310, despite being built ten later, while the class 313, just a year later, was of a very different design, the first EMU without slam doors (and is still in use today). Classes 314, 315, 507 and 508 are all based on the 313.
400+ SR DC Electric Multiple Units
Nothing to say on this yet, other than noting that there are a lot of them!
500+ Non-SR DC Electric Multiple Units
Outside the southern region, electrification was quite a hotch-potch of different systems, and the DC EMUs represent that situation. As with AC EMUS, they tend to be very much restricted to one route.
501 North London Line and Euston to Watford
502 Liverpool Exchange station to Southport and Ormskirk
503 Wirral & Mersey lines
504 Bury line
505 Altrincham line
506 Manchester, Glossop and Hadfield
507 Merseyrail (1978)
508 Merseyrail (1979)
Several classes were withdrawn when the infrastructure was updated to other system. Class 504 units were all withdrawn in 1991 when the Bury line became part of the Manchester Metro. Class 505 units were withdrawn in 1971 when the Altrincham lines were converted to AC, with the WCML electrification. After the closure of the Woodhead route, it was not long before the Manchester, Glossop and Hadfield line was converted to AC, and class 506 was withdrawn in 1984.
Class 501 units were withdrawn by 1985, replaced by the similar looking class 416 (2-EPB) from the southern region. Classes 502 and 503 were replaced by class 507 and 508. The last examples disappearing in 1980 and 1985 respectively.
600+ Diesel or other fuel multiple units*
700+ Extends 300+*
800+ High speed (>120 mph) sets*